[ ]      [ ]

Show us your NEW _______________!!!! - Coaxial - Apr 20, 2014 - 6:54am
 
Free Mp3s - miamizsun - Apr 20, 2014 - 6:45am
 
Today in History - Red_Dragon - Apr 20, 2014 - 6:23am
 
Things You Thought Today - 2cats - Apr 20, 2014 - 6:18am
 
Flower Pictures - Antigone - Apr 20, 2014 - 6:09am
 
Birds' nest - haresfur - Apr 20, 2014 - 2:45am
 
Counting with Pictures - fidget - Apr 20, 2014 - 2:28am
 
Quotations - rolfj - Apr 20, 2014 - 1:19am
 
YouTube: Music-Videos - kurtster - Apr 19, 2014 - 11:54pm
 
Movie rental suggestions & reviews - Netflix or Blockbuster - buzz - Apr 19, 2014 - 9:42pm
 
Dialing 1-800-Manbird - oldviolin - Apr 19, 2014 - 9:42pm
 
Radio Paradise Comments - Coaxial - Apr 19, 2014 - 7:54pm
 
Bug Reports & Feature Requests - DaveInVA - Apr 19, 2014 - 7:09pm
 
Baseball, anyone? - ScottN - Apr 19, 2014 - 6:38pm
 
Amazing animals! - RichardPrins - Apr 19, 2014 - 5:52pm
 
What Did You Do Today? - Red_Dragon - Apr 19, 2014 - 4:17pm
 
What are you doing RIGHT NOW? - sunybuny - Apr 19, 2014 - 2:45pm
 
Great drummers - n4ku - Apr 19, 2014 - 1:00pm
 
Free Books and Free Culture Online - RichardPrins - Apr 19, 2014 - 12:44pm
 
WTF??!! - bokey - Apr 19, 2014 - 12:21pm
 
Out the window - Alexandra - Apr 19, 2014 - 10:19am
 
Drones - miamizsun - Apr 19, 2014 - 9:56am
 
Post a photo of yourself as a kid - miamizsun - Apr 19, 2014 - 9:47am
 
Memorials - Remembering Our Loved Ones - miamizsun - Apr 19, 2014 - 9:46am
 
What's that smell? - Alexandra - Apr 19, 2014 - 9:15am
 
Poetry Forum - Antigone - Apr 19, 2014 - 8:55am
 
Regarding dogs - oldviolin - Apr 19, 2014 - 8:23am
 
For Jrzy! - Coaxial - Apr 19, 2014 - 7:03am
 
Are there any network music player stereo components that... - kurtster - Apr 19, 2014 - 5:33am
 
Things You Thought You Heard Out Loud - bokey - Apr 19, 2014 - 5:04am
 
The Burrito Chronicles - haresfur - Apr 18, 2014 - 11:20pm
 
Answers Only - oldviolin - Apr 18, 2014 - 10:25pm
 
260,000 Posts in one thread? - oldviolin - Apr 18, 2014 - 10:17pm
 
Cryptic Posts - Leave Them Guessing - oldviolin - Apr 18, 2014 - 9:19pm
 
Quick! I need a chicken... - BlueHeronDruid - Apr 18, 2014 - 8:52pm
 
Helpful emergency signs - Red_Dragon - Apr 18, 2014 - 5:14pm
 
Celebrity Deaths - Antigone - Apr 18, 2014 - 5:10pm
 
tv concerts - kurtster - Apr 18, 2014 - 5:01pm
 
Taxes, Taxes, Taxes (and Taxes) - islander - Apr 18, 2014 - 5:00pm
 
• • • The Once-a-Day • • •  - oldviolin - Apr 18, 2014 - 4:24pm
 
Questions. - Antigone - Apr 18, 2014 - 3:20pm
 
Name My Band - n4ku - Apr 18, 2014 - 3:15pm
 
What Makes You Laugh? - ScottN - Apr 18, 2014 - 1:27pm
 
...what is YOUR theme song for the day?... - aflanigan - Apr 18, 2014 - 1:10pm
 
Talk Behind Their Backs Forum - JustineFromWyoming - Apr 18, 2014 - 12:21pm
 
Great Old Songs You Rarely Hear Anymore - KurtfromLaQuinta - Apr 18, 2014 - 12:12pm
 
HAIR: Long, short, beautiful - Alexandra - Apr 18, 2014 - 11:52am
 
My City - Antigone - Apr 18, 2014 - 11:07am
 
no-money fun - Proclivities - Apr 18, 2014 - 10:35am
 
Favorite Quotes - sirdroseph - Apr 18, 2014 - 8:33am
 
Celebrity Face Recognition - Antigone - Apr 18, 2014 - 7:33am
 
The War On You - sirdroseph - Apr 18, 2014 - 4:21am
 
Beta Testers wanted for new Android App - ree2k - Apr 18, 2014 - 2:47am
 
Living Spaces/Architecture - Lazy8 - Apr 17, 2014 - 11:18pm
 
Other Medical Stuff - DaveInVA - Apr 17, 2014 - 8:58pm
 
Movie Recommendation - Alexandra - Apr 17, 2014 - 8:25pm
 
What makes you smile? - BlueHeronDruid - Apr 17, 2014 - 2:10pm
 
Bear! - Proclivities - Apr 17, 2014 - 1:06pm
 
Little known information...maybe even facts - miamizsun - Apr 17, 2014 - 1:02pm
 
What Are You Going To Do Today? - Red_Dragon - Apr 17, 2014 - 12:51pm
 
Regarding cats - lily34 - Apr 17, 2014 - 11:43am
 
Private messages in a public forum - buzz - Apr 17, 2014 - 10:09am
 
Ask an Atheist - Lazy8 - Apr 17, 2014 - 10:01am
 
Basketball, anyone? Hello? Hello? - islander - Apr 17, 2014 - 9:54am
 
Who is this band? - Proclivities - Apr 17, 2014 - 9:49am
 
Lyrics that strike a chord today... - Alexandra - Apr 17, 2014 - 9:38am
 
That's good advice - Red_Dragon - Apr 17, 2014 - 9:08am
 
Epic Facebook Statuses - Coaxial - Apr 17, 2014 - 8:56am
 
True Confessions - ScottN - Apr 17, 2014 - 8:56am
 
HALF A WORLD - Red_Dragon - Apr 17, 2014 - 8:44am
 
Phine Phound Photographs - aflanigan - Apr 17, 2014 - 8:43am
 
Predictions - Antigone - Apr 17, 2014 - 8:15am
 
Ukraine - oldviolin - Apr 17, 2014 - 7:32am
 
Beer - miamizsun - Apr 17, 2014 - 7:30am
 
Gentlemen! There Is No Point Lounge - buzz - Apr 17, 2014 - 7:24am
 
(a public service of RP)
Index » Regional/Local » USA/Canada » Evolution! Page: 1, 2, 3 ... 110, 111, 112  Next
Post to this Topic
RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Mar 18, 2014 - 8:33am

Neil deGrasse Tyson Tells Fox Viewers “Evolution is a Scientific Fact” on Episode #2 of Cosmos (Open Culture)
RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Mar 13, 2014 - 7:13am

Did better mothering defeat the Neanderthals?
An exciting new series inspired by a major five-year project at Kochi University of Technology in Japan casts new light on how modern humans inherited the Earth. Reviewed by Paul H. Mason.

As the first humans made their way out of Africa some 80,000 years ago they began to occupy territories inhabited by Neanderthals. Their populations ended up overlapping for between 30,000 and 50,000 years, and some male Neanderthals reproduced with human females, evidenced by the fact that up to 4% of modern human DNA has Neanderthal origins but nothing of maternally derived mitochondrial DNA (COSMOS issue 39, p 27). Yet the two groups never merged into a single population. They upheld their distinct cultural practices until eventually Neanderthals were replaced by the invading humans. Scientists still do not know exactly why Neanderthals became extinct. I have long entertained a novel idea: that it was because human mothers, in comparison to their Neanderthal sisters, lavished more attention on their offspring.

030314_review_1_650This exciting new series is inspired by the research outcomes of a major five-year project at Kochi University of Technology in Japan. It offers some support for my view. “Replacement of Neanderthals” collates a large body of multidisciplinary research on the factors that contributed to the extinction of Neanderthals, including their anatomy, cranial volume, stone tool technology, rituals, climate change and recent discoveries about the genes they carried. The novel theme of this series, though, is the emphasis on learning differences: the authors consider them the most important factor in the replacement of Neanderthals by humans. But while the research series considers cultural transmission from parents to offspring, one key feature of Neanderthal and human social organisation remains strikingly unexplored. What were the gender roles and kinship patterns of these two hominin groups? Evidence to date indicates that Neanderthals were patrilocal, meaning the females went to live with their mate’s family; whereas early modern humans appear more likely to have been matrilocal, the male moved to the female’s family. How would gender dynamics and kinship structure influence the competition between species? Quite dramatically!

Female Neanderthals were physically robust and hunted alongside their men – their fossil bones show that they sustained injury from close-proximity big game hunting.

Female Neanderthals were physically robust and hunted alongside their men – their fossil bones show that they sustained injury from close-proximity big game hunting. Humans, on the other hand, opted for a greater division of labour. While female Neanderthals were off hunting with the men, female humans spent their time on domestic duties, which included cave painting. Contrary to popular perception, your stone age Michelangelo was more likely to be a Maria, according to a recent study of 40,000-year-old hand stencils reported in American Antiquity. This finding highlights the creative role that female humans played in hunter-gatherer societies, and also has clear implications for the type of mothering they were able to deliver. Recent data published in Nature adds to this picture. Analysis of a fossil tooth from a Neanderthal infant shows that Neanderthal children moved off exclusive breastfeeding at around 7.5 months of age. In comparison, infants in hunter-gatherer societies are not weaned until around three or four years of age. Clearly, female participation in close-range hunting would impact negatively upon child-rearing capacities while lullabies and cave painting would be more conducive to the mother-infant bond.

In my view, the human babies who had more time with their mothers, who were in turn supported by their own families in the task of raising highly dependent, slow-maturing, offspring, found themselves in an ideal learning environment. The mother-infant bond is key to the evolution of language, nonverbal communication and interpersonal emotional skills; the extended childhood increases the duration of learning and innovation.

Was the victory of humans over Neanderthals a result of the long-term benefits of a social structure that more highly valued the mother-infant bond? Firmer evidence is required. However, a stronger understanding of gender dynamics in Neanderthal and human populations will certainly contribute to a comprehensive understanding of human origins.

Paul Mason is a Sydney-based anthropologist.


RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Mar 13, 2014 - 6:40am

 2cats wrote:
I just read that the Fox station in OKC edited out the portion about evolution on the "Cosmos" premier.
 
Wait, censorship?! {#Wink}

Oklahoma Fox station accidentally cuts evolution scene from 'Cosmos' - latimes.com
2cats

2cats Avatar

Location: Oklahoma
Gender: Female
Zodiac: Libra
Chinese Yr: Buffalo


Posted: Mar 13, 2014 - 6:39am

 sirdroseph wrote:


Wow, you guys make Georgia seem progressive!{#Lol}

 
I know. We have crazy people running the state, too.  I heard that on one OKC station, the weather man preaches his interpretation of Revelations on the air.
sirdroseph
Endeavor to Perservere
sirdroseph Avatar

Location: Yes
Gender: Male
Zodiac: Sagittarius
Chinese Yr: Dragon


Posted: Mar 13, 2014 - 6:35am

 2cats wrote:
I just read that the Fox station in OKC edited out the portion about evolution on the "Cosmos" premier.

 

Wow, you guys make Georgia seem progressive!{#Lol}
2cats

2cats Avatar

Location: Oklahoma
Gender: Female
Zodiac: Libra
Chinese Yr: Buffalo


Posted: Mar 13, 2014 - 6:32am

I just read that the Fox station in OKC edited out the portion about evolution on the "Cosmos" premier.
sirdroseph
Endeavor to Perservere
sirdroseph Avatar

Location: Yes
Gender: Male
Zodiac: Sagittarius
Chinese Yr: Dragon


Posted: Mar 12, 2014 - 8:37am

 RichardPrins wrote:

As will some people... {#Mrgreen}

 

True dat, the cases of zombie like behavior are increasing.{#Eek}
RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Mar 12, 2014 - 7:20am

 sirdroseph wrote:
They will still eat your face off.
 
As will some people... {#Mrgreen}
sirdroseph
Endeavor to Perservere
sirdroseph Avatar

Location: Yes
Gender: Male
Zodiac: Sagittarius
Chinese Yr: Dragon


Posted: Mar 12, 2014 - 4:29am

 RichardPrins wrote:
Empathy chimpanzees offer is key to understanding human engagement
In their latest study about empathy, Yerkes National Primate Research Center researchers Matthew Campbell, PhD, and Frans de Waal, PhD, have shown chimpanzees exhibit flexibility in their empathy, just as humans do. These findings, which appear in the current issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, may help explain the evolution of how and when humans engage with others and choose to offer flexibility, and how we can do so more.

While it's been long known that human empathy can extend to family, friends, strangers and even other species, it has been unknown until now whether nonhumans are similarly broad in their empathic responses. To answer this question, Campbell and de Waal used contagious yawning as a measure of involuntary empathy. According to Campbell, "Copying the facial expressions of others helps us to adopt and understand their current state."

The researchers found chimpanzees showed contagious yawning to familiar chimpanzees, familiar humans, and unfamiliar humans, but not to unfamiliar chimpanzees or an unfamiliar species (gelada baboons). "That humans known and unknown elicited empathy similarly to group members, and more than unknown chimpanzees, shows flexibility in engagement," says Campbell. "We can use this information to try to influence this flexible response in order to increase empathy toward unfamiliar chimpanzees, and we hope we will be able to apply such knowledge to humans as well," Campbell continues.

This study is a follow up to a study published in 2009 that showed contagious yawning in chimpanzees is not just a marker of sleepiness or boredom, but that it is a sign of a social connection between individuals. Campbell and de Waal have continued their work to better understand empathy as a window into social and emotional connections between individuals in order to help break down barriers among humans.
First Rowena and then Liza watch videos of familiar chimpanzees yawning. Credit: Emory University
{#Yawn}

 

They will still eat your face off.
RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Mar 11, 2014 - 6:33pm

Empathy chimpanzees offer is key to understanding human engagement
In their latest study about empathy, Yerkes National Primate Research Center researchers Matthew Campbell, PhD, and Frans de Waal, PhD, have shown chimpanzees exhibit flexibility in their empathy, just as humans do. These findings, which appear in the current issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, may help explain the evolution of how and when humans engage with others and choose to offer flexibility, and how we can do so more.

While it's been long known that human empathy can extend to family, friends, strangers and even other species, it has been unknown until now whether nonhumans are similarly broad in their empathic responses. To answer this question, Campbell and de Waal used contagious yawning as a measure of involuntary empathy. According to Campbell, "Copying the facial expressions of others helps us to adopt and understand their current state."

The researchers found chimpanzees showed contagious yawning to familiar chimpanzees, familiar humans, and unfamiliar humans, but not to unfamiliar chimpanzees or an unfamiliar species (gelada baboons). "That humans known and unknown elicited empathy similarly to group members, and more than unknown chimpanzees, shows flexibility in engagement," says Campbell. "We can use this information to try to influence this flexible response in order to increase empathy toward unfamiliar chimpanzees, and we hope we will be able to apply such knowledge to humans as well," Campbell continues.

This study is a follow up to a study published in 2009 that showed contagious yawning in chimpanzees is not just a marker of sleepiness or boredom, but that it is a sign of a social connection between individuals. Campbell and de Waal have continued their work to better understand empathy as a window into social and emotional connections between individuals in order to help break down barriers among humans.


First Rowena and then Liza watch videos of familiar chimpanzees yawning. Credit: Emory University
{#Yawn}
RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Mar 9, 2014 - 7:01am

When Trilobites Ruled the World - NYTimes.com/Natalie Angier
 A well-preserved trilobite specimen from Morocco that lived during the Devonian Period roughly 400 million years ago. Credit Chip Clark/Smithsonian
Trilobites may be the archetypal fossils, symbols of an archaic world long swept beneath the ruthless road grader of time. But we should all look so jaunty after half a billion years.

 Brian T. Huber of the Smithsonian’s Museum of Natural History, with a cache of trilobites. Credit Chris Bickford for The New York Times

At the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History, Brian T. Huber, chairman of paleobiology, points to a flawless specimen of Walliserops, a five-inch trilobite that swam the Devonian seas around what is now Morocco some 150 million years before the first dinosaurs hatched. With its elongated, triple-tined head horn and a bristle brush of spines encircling its lower body, the trilobite could be a kitchen utensil for Salvador Dalí. Nearby is the even older Boedaspis ensifer, its festive nimbus of spiny streamers pointing every which way like the ribbons of a Chinese dancer.

In a back room of the museum, Dr. Huber opens a drawer to reveal a dark, mouse-size and meticulously armored trilobite that has yet to be identified and that strains up from its sedimentary bed as though determined to break free.

“A lot of people, when they see these fossils, don’t believe they’re real,” said Dr. Huber, who is 54, fit from years of fieldwork, and proud that the state fossil of his native Ohio is a trilobite. “They think they must be artists’ models.”

The fossils are real, and so, too, is scientists’ unshakable passion for trilobites (TRY-luh-bites), a diverse and illuminating group of marine animals, distantly related to the horseshoe crab, that once dominated their environment as much as dinosaurs and humans would later dominate theirs — and that still have a few surprises up their jointed sleeves.

In a series of recent reports, scientists describe fresh insights into the trilobite’s crystal-eyed visual system, unique in the animal kingdom, and its distinctive body plan, a hashtag of horizontal segments arrayed along three vertical lobes that allowed the trilobite to roll up into a defensive ball against predators and sea squalls.

Other researchers have found evidence that some trilobites were highly social, migrating long distances in a head-to-tail procession as they searched for food, or gathering together during molting season at a kind of Trilo’s Retreat, where the trilobites could simultaneously shuck off their carapaces and seek out mates.

“It looks like a lot of trilobite mating behavior happened when they were in a soft-shelled form,” said Carlton E. Brett, a professor of geology at the University of Cincinnati, who has presented research on trilobite assemblages to the Geological Society of America and elsewhere. “They did it in the nude.”

To investigate trilobite social life, Dr. Brett and his colleagues analyzed numerous examples of mass burial sites, where congregations of trilobites had been trapped in place by the sedimentary upheavals from violent sea storms, just as the residents of Pompeii were smothered in midscream by Vesuvian ash. (...)


RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Mar 4, 2014 - 5:24am

Newly identified dinosaur fauna sheds light on evolution
Recognition of the 160 million year old Daohugou Biota has huge scientific potential
Artist's reconstruction of some of the species that lived in the Daohugou Biota. There are feathered dinosaurs, salamanders, pterosaurs, lizards, and both gliding and swimming mammals. Illustration: Julia Molnar

Less than 20 years ago the first known feathered dinosaurs from northeastern China were being unveiled to a surprised and amazed public, and since then huge numbers of fossils have been found. A new study, however, confirms previous suspicions that this wonderful collection in fact represents two major temporal and evolutionary periods, and not one as formerly assumed.

Key to the feathered dinosaur discoveries in China was the exceptional preservation of the fossils themselves which were not just skeletons, but feathers, skin, claws and more. Other animals from the same beds were similarly well preserved with fur on mammals, membranous wings on the pterosaurs and the gills of salamanders being seen in various specimens. Such environmental conditions and events that provide the necessary means to preserve fossils in this manner (here, very fine volcanic ash) are extremely rare. Only a couple of other localities worldwide are from the Mesozoic and both are primarily marine rather than terrestrial, so in fact animals such as dinosaurs, birds and mammals are rather rare in these fossil beds.

As a result, it’s not a surprise that researchers originally assumed that everything that was turning up was effectively part of the same series of fossil beds. After all, such things were extraordinarily rare, and basically everything was preserved in volcanic ash. What were the odds that this was more than one fauna that just happened to overlap exactly geographically and in preservation type? The fact that many of the early discoveries were made by farmers or came through fossil dealers added to the confusion. Without knowing the exact origins of the material it was impossible to correlate the various fossil beds and outcrops that spread from the Chinese region of Inner Mongolia though the province of Liaoning and even into North Korea.

However, in recent years it has become increasingly apparent that some of the material was rather older than had previously been thought. The new paper (of which I am an author) reviews the evidence establishing the geological age of these older fossils, and more importantly, suggests that they can be considered part of a new fauna. These older specimens come from a number of different localities, but they can be linked together by the presence of a salamander species. Radiometric dating work for numerous sites confirms an age of around 160m years old. We can thus use this species as a marker to help define what does and does not fall into this fauna and the dating suggests the existence of these animals over a relatively limited period of geological time. (...)


RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Feb 28, 2014 - 10:17pm

700-Year-Old Poop Tracks History of Human Gut Microbes | Science/AAAS | News
Ancient deposits. Scientists recovered these bacteria-loving viruses (seen with the aid of an electron microscope) from 700-year-old fossilized feces.

Ancient deposits. Scientists recovered these bacteria-loving viruses (seen with the aid of an electron microscope) from 700-year-old fossilized feces.

Petrified human feces from the 14th century have revealed the earliest evidence of an arms race in the human gut. Our intestinal bacteria, it seems, were employing antibiotics long before people developed drugs like penicillin.

The bacteria that live in your intestines are territorial little suckers. When new microbes arrive, the natives fight them off with antibiotics. The invaders respond by developing immunity to these compounds. So the native bacteria in your gut—known as the microbiome—develop ever stronger antibiotics. This war has likely been waging in the human intestine for eons, but scientists have had little evidence of its history.

That’s now changed, thanks to a surprise find in Namur, Belgium. An urban development project there unearthed some historic bowel movements in 1996. Excavation under a town square revealed latrines from the Middle Ages buried 4 meters deep. Each held sealed barrels of human waste that had not been aired out in nearly 700 years.

Paleomicrobiologists carefully extracted the fossilized feces—known as coprolites (they look a bit like poop-shaped rocks)—from the barrels to prevent modern bacteria and viruses from contaminating the medieval microbes. A preserved fecal deposit eventually plopped into the virology lab of Christelle Desnues at the Research Unit on Infectious and Emerging Tropical Diseases (URMITE) in Marseille, France.

Her team bored into the coprolite, extracting a piece of its core approximately the weight of a nickel. Electron microscopy exposed viruslike structures peppered throughout the samples. When the team sequenced the genomes of all the viruses in the ancient poop, they discovered that most of them were bacteria-loving viruses called bacteriophages, or “phages” for short. Phages are the cargo ships of the bacterial world, picking up genes from one bacterium and transferring them to another. Occasionally, this process instills their bacterial hosts with an evolutionary advantage. Indeed, researchers have observed modern-day phages shipping antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria that cause infections, thus increasing their virulence.

Desnues and her team discovered that the phage genomes from the coprolite were packed with antibiotic resistance genes, as they report online this month in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. This supports that bacteriophages are an ancient reservoir of resistance genes in the gut, dating back as far as the Middle Ages, Desnues says.

A broader diversity of antibiotic resistance genes were observed in the coprolite. “It was surprising that the ancient stool had more (antibiotic resistance) genes than modern stool samples,” says Jeremy Barr, a microbiologist at San Diego State University in California who was not involved with the study. If this coprolite specimen is representative of the time period, then the reduction in these genes over time may reflect that modern sanitation in food or water supplies have weakened the defenses of gut bacteria, he says.

Interestingly, Desnues’s team’s research reveals that the phages also carried metabolic genes that equip host bacteria with the ability to process fats and amino acids, which may be the traits that made them so useful to our intestines in the first place. Members of the human microbiome help us digest food, temper inflammation, and may fight obesity—so their resistance to antibiotics actually benefits us.

“It's as if we need these phages as part of our microbiome,” says Vincent Racaniello, a microbiologist at Columbia University who was not involved in the research. He says that though the species of gut phages have changed over time, the key genes that they swap have remained the same. “We evolved as humans to house (gut phages) for the functions they provide—that’s the coolest part.”

Proclivities
Outside of a dog, a book is a man's best friend. Inside of a dog it's too dark to read.
Proclivities Avatar

Location: Paris of the Piedmont
Gender: Male
Zodiac: Aries
Chinese Yr: Tiger


Posted: Feb 26, 2014 - 12:37pm

 Red_Dragon wrote:

is the one second from the right Jesus?

 
or Mitch Miller...?
mm
Red_Dragon
y ddraig goch ddyry gychwyn
Red_Dragon Avatar

Location: Redneck Nation


Posted: Feb 26, 2014 - 12:36pm

 Proclivities wrote:
brainwashed

Funny stuff - most of which was debunked long ago.
 
is the one second from the right Jesus?
Proclivities
Outside of a dog, a book is a man's best friend. Inside of a dog it's too dark to read.
Proclivities Avatar

Location: Paris of the Piedmont
Gender: Male
Zodiac: Aries
Chinese Yr: Tiger


Posted: Feb 26, 2014 - 11:22am

brainwashed

Funny stuff - most of which was debunked long ago.

RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Feb 22, 2014 - 8:27am

Tracing Ancestry, Researchers Produce a Genetic Atlas of Human Mixing Events - NYTimes.com

The rise and fall of empires, the march of armies, the flow of trade routes, the practice of slavery — all these events have led to a mixing of populations around the world. Such episodes have left a record in the human genome, but one that has so far been too complex to decipher on a global scale.

Now, geneticists applying new statistical approaches have taken a first shot at both identifying and dating the major population mixture events of the last 4,000 years, with the goal of providing a new source of information for historians.

Some of the hundred or so major mixing events they describe have plausible historical explanations, while many others remain to be accounted for. For instance, many populations of the southern Mediterranean and Middle East have segments of African origin in their genomes that were inserted at times between A.D. 650 and 1900, according to the geneticists’ calculations. This could reflect the activity of the Arab slave trade, which originated in the seventh century, and the absorption of slaves into their host populations.

The lowest amount of African admixture occurs in the Druse, a religious group of the Middle East that prohibited slavery and has been closed to converts since A.D. 1043.

Another mixing event is the injection of European-type DNA into the Kalash, a people of Pakistan, at some time between 990 and 210 B.C. This could reflect the invasion of India by Alexander the Great in 326 B.C. The Kalash claim to be descended from Alexander’s soldiers, as do several other groups in the region.

The genetic atlas of human mixing events was published on Thursday in the journal Science by a team led by Simon Myers of Oxford University, Garrett Hellenthal of University College London and Daniel Falush of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. Having sampled genomes from around the world, they found they could detect about 95 distinguishable populations.

Though all humans have the same set of genes, their genomes are studded with mutations, which are differences in the sequence of DNA units in the genome. These mutations occur in patterns because whole sets of mutations are passed down from parent to child and hence will be common in a particular population. Based on these patterns, geneticists can scan a person’s genome and assign the ancestry of each segment to a particular race or population.

The team led by Dr. Myers has developed a statistical technique for identifying the chromosomal segments with particular precision. This enables them to perform a second feat, that of assigning a date to the one or more mixing events that have affected a population.

The dating system is based on measuring the length of chromosome segments of a particular ancestry that occur in a population. When people of two different populations intermarry, their children’s genomes carry large chunks of DNA of one parent’s ancestry interspersed with large chunks from the other’s.

In each successive generation, the average size of the chunks becomes smaller because when DNA is swapped between the parents’ genomes in making the eggs or sperm, the cuts needed to generate the swapped sections are made in different places. Therefore, from the average size of the chunks in a person’s genome, the geneticists can calculate the number of generations since the mixing event.

“We are among the first to try to date ancestry events, and we have more ability to determine the source populations,” Dr. Myers said.

One of the most widespread events his group has detected is the injection of Mongol ancestry into populations within the Mongol empire, such as the Hazara of Afghanistan and the Uighur Turks of Central Asia. The event occurred 22 generations ago, according to genetic dating, which corresponds to the beginning of the 14th century, fitting well with the period of the Mongol empire.

In another example, the European colonization of America is recorded in the genomes of the Maya and Pima Indians. And Cambodian genomes mark the fall of the Khmer empire in the form of ancestral DNA from the invading Tai people.

Dr. Myers and his colleagues have detected European ancestry that entered the Tu people of central China between the 11th and 14th centuries; this, they surmise, could be from traders traveling the Silk Road. They find among Northern Italians an insertion of Middle Eastern DNA that occurred between 776 B.C. and A.D. 550, and may represent the Etruscans, a mysterious people said by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus to have emigrated from Lydia in Turkey.

The Myers group has posted its results on a web page that records the degree of admixture in each population. The English, however, known to be a rich medley of Celts with invaders such as the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes and Norwegians, carry the notation “No strong evidence of admixture.” Dr. Myers said his method cannot yet detect genetic mixing between very similar populations, as was the case with the English and their invaders from Scandinavia and Northern Germany. He said he hoped to distinguish all these groups in a separate project on British ancestry.

Dr. Hellenthal said, “We’re fairly confident that increasing our sample size will help us follow local migrations.”

John Novembre, a geneticist at the University of Chicago, described the new genetic atlas as a “landmark study” because of its scale and the fact that the authors had been able to extract complex signatures from the data. “The detailed historical interpretations may need further questioning and testing,” he said.

Dr. Myers and Dr. Hellenthal said that they hoped historians would find their work useful, but that they had not collaborated with historians.

“In some sense we don’t want to talk to historians,” Dr. Falush said. “There’s a great virtue in being objective: You put the data in and get the history out. We do think this is a way of reconstructing history by just using DNA.”


RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Feb 20, 2014 - 8:48pm

Profiles in Evolutionary Moral Psychology: Oliver Scott Curry
As part of the “Profiles in Evolutionary Moral Psychology” interview series, Evolution: This View of Life had the opportunity to speak with Oliver Scott Curry. Dr Curry is Departmental Lecturer at the University of Oxford’s Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, as well as Research Associate at the London School of Economics’ Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science. His research has focused on altruism and cooperation in contexts such as kinship, social networks, and friendship, and in relation to topics such as patience, humour, and theory of mind. In his interview, Curry explains why David Hume is the founder of evolutionary psychology, why social constructivists are really just evolutionary psychologists who got carried away, and why nothing about morality makes sense except in the light of evolution.

MICHAEL PRICE: What can evolutionary approaches tell us about human moral systems that other approaches cannot tell us? That is, what unique and novel insights about morality does an evolutionary approach provide?

OLIVER SCOTT CURRY: Well, everything. It can tell us what morality is, where it comes from, and how it works. No other approach can do that.

The evolutionary approach tells us that morality is a set of biological and cultural strategies for solving problems of cooperation and conflict. We have a range of moral instincts that are natural selection’s attempts to solve these problems. They are sophisticated versions of the kind of social instincts seen in other species. These instincts motivate us to be social, cooperative, and altruistic, and they provide the criteria by which we evaluate the behaviour of others. And ever since entering the cognitive niche, humans have attempted to improve on nature’s solutions by inventing new rules and tools for social life. (...)

RichardPrins
Anti-Procrustean
RichardPrins Avatar



Posted: Feb 19, 2014 - 10:51am

Flappy Birds and Flippy Fish Obey Same Laws of Fluid Dynamics — NOVA Next | PBS
(...)

The researchers combed video websites including YouTube and Vimeo for footage of species ranging from fruit flies to bats and from molluscs to humpback whales. For all the vast diversity of propulsor shapes and structures — gossamer-thin membranes, feathered wings, thick and heavy whale tails — the researchers found little variation in certain variables, which they measured essentially by hand. Specifically, across 59 species the distance from the point where bending starts to the wing base tended to be around two-thirds of the total wing length; and the maximum angle of bending was confined within the range of about 15° to 38°.

It seems, then, that all of these animals have evolved around the same universal principles of motion—a phenomenon known as convergent evolution. No matter how minute the insect or how mammoth the whale, fins and wings flex in accordance with the same physical laws that maximize thrust. If scientists can pinpoint the specific mechanisms involved in this bending, a new generation of bio-inspired technology could be waiting in the wings.

ricguy
Feelin' green all over again.
ricguy Avatar

Location: between gigs...in the OC, CA
Gender: Male
Zodiac: Gemini
Chinese Yr: Buffalo


Posted: Feb 18, 2014 - 9:35am

 kurtster wrote:


 
they are only UFO's if they are unidentified ....from now on consider them identified.
Page: 1, 2, 3 ... 110, 111, 112  Next